The Great Sphinx of Giza or simply The Sphinx located on the Giza Plateau on the west bank of the Nile in Giza, Egypt. In front of the Sphinx is its temple, while adjacent is the better preserved Valley Temple of Khafre.
The Sphinx is one of the best known monuments on Earth and dates back over 4,500 years to the Old Kingdom and the time of pharaoh Khafra (c. 2558–2532 BC).The head of the Sphinx probably depicts Khafre, while the body is that of a recumbent lion.
It was originally sculptured from a limestone outcrop and, for most of its history, the Sphinx has been at least partly covered in sand. The first recorded clearing took place in the 18th Dynasty when a prince, who later became the pharaoh Thutmose IV, ordered that the sand be removed. This happened after he supposedly had a dream in which he was told that he would become pharaoh if he cleared the Sphinx.
The Sphinx is the largest monolith statue in the world, standing 73.5 metres (241 ft) long, 6 metres (20 ft) wide, and 20.22 m (66.34 ft) high. It is the oldest known monumental sculpture. The Great Sphinx is one of the world’s largest and oldest statues, but basic facts about it, such as who was the model for the face, when it was built, and by whom, are still debated.
Unfortunately, in recent centuries, the Sphinx has suffered greatly from the influence of man and exposure to the environment. Numerous attempts have been made to restore the figure and additional modern limestone blocks have been added around the base.