The Parthenon , symbol of Ancient Greece , located in Acropolis , Athens is a temple dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena, the protector of the city . Parthenon is the most famous surviving building of Ancient Greece and one of the most famous buildings in the world .
The Parthenon has stood atop the Acropolis of Athens for nearly 2,500 years and was officially called the Temple of Athena the Virgin . The Greek word parthenos means virgin .
Replacing an older temple destroyed by the Persians, the Parthenon was constructed at the initiative of Pericles, the leading Athenian politician of the 5th century BC. It was built under the general supervision of the sculptor Phidias, who also had charge of the sculptural decoration. The architects were Iktinos and Kallikrates. The purpose of the building was to house a 40-foot-high statue of Athena Parthenos sculpted by Pheidias.
Construction began in 447 BC and the building and was completed by 438 BC , but decorations continued until at least 433 BC. Evidence shows that the largest expense was transporting the stone from Mount Pentelicus, about 16km from Athens.
One of the temple’s main function was to shelter the monumental statue of Athena that was made by Pheidias out of gold and ivory. Throughout history , the Parthenon has functioned as a Greek temple, but has also been a treasury, a fortress, a church, and a mosque. Today, it is one of the most recognizable icons and popular tourist attractions in Greece .
The Parthenon is the most important surviving building of Classical Greece, generally considered to be the culmination of the development of the Doric order. Its decorative sculptures are considered some of the high points of Greek art. The Parthenon is regarded as an enduring symbol of Ancient Greece and one of the world’s greatest cultural monuments.Parthenon has the reputation of being the most perfect Doric temple ever built. It consists of a rectangular floor plan with a series of low steps on every side, and a colonnade (8 x 17) of Doric columns extending around the periphery of the entire structure. Each entrance has an additional six columns in front of it. The larger of the two interior rooms, the naos, housed the statue while smaller room (the opisthodomos) was used as a treasury .
The Parthenon was elaborately decorated with marble sculptures both internally and externally. These survive only in part, but there are good descriptions of most of those parts that have been lost. The Parthenon frieze runs around the upper edge of the temple wall. Its relatively small size (3 feet tall) and placement made it fairly hard to see from the ground. The metopes of the Parthenon all represented various instances of the struggle between the forces of order and justice, on the one hand, and criminal chaos on the other. We strongly recommend to visit the Parthenon witch is the symbol of Ancient Greece .