The Great Pyramid of Giza (also called the Pyramid of Khufu and the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest monument on the list of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It is believed the pyramid was built as a tomb for fourth dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu and constructed over a 20-year period concluding around 2560 BC. Initially at 146.5 meters (480.6 ft), the Great Pyramid remained the tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3,800 years, unsurpassed until the 160-metre-tall spire of Lincoln Cathedral was completed c. 1300.
How the pyramid was constructed has always been the subject of very passionate debate by scholars. Some evidence and theories suggest that 20,000 workers over the course of 20 years built it, and were even paid to do so. This would have required a great deal of organization and manpower in the way of accounting and record keeping. The Egyptians were known for their excellent documentation.
The pyramid was constructed out of stone blocks, each weighing at least 2 tons. There are theories suggesting that multiple men together maneuvered each block over a ramp that encircled the structure as it rose, or that they moved each stone up long ramps that got higher and longer as the pyramid got taller, or even that scaffolding was used. Many eschew each of these theories for different reasons, including the idea that wood that could have been used for scaffolding or ramps would have been at a premium, and using mud brick for those purposes would not have held under the enormous weight of each massive block. And, of course, there are the ideas that aliens built the pyramids . However the pyramid was constructed, it is a marvelous feat, and should be awed and respected, especially because it is standing today with relatively minor damage.
There are three known chambers inside the Great Pyramid. The lowest chamber is cut into the bedrock upon which the pyramid was built and was unfinished. The so-called Queen’s Chamber and King’s Chamber are higher up within the pyramid structure. The Great Pyramid of Giza is the only pyramid in Egypt known to contain both ascending and descending passages. The main part of the Giza complex is a setting of buildings that included two mortuary temples in honor of Khufu, three smaller pyramids for Khufu’s wives, an even smaller “satellite” pyramid, a raised causeway connecting the two temples, and small mastaba tombs surrounding the pyramid for nobles.
The Queen’s Chamber is exactly half-way between the north and south faces of the pyramid and measures 5.75 metres (18.9 ft) north to south, 5.23 metres (17.2 ft) east to west and has a pointed roof with an apex 6.23 metres (20.4 ft) above the floor. At the eastern end of the chamber there is a niche 4.67 metres (15.3 ft) high. The original depth of the niche was 1.04 metres (3.4 ft), but has since been deepened by treasure hunter
There is no wonder why the Great Pyramid of Giza was on the list of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It is a testament of human engineering and intelligence , and its sheer size and scale rivals any structure built within the last few hundred years.